2024 Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg - Abstract. This paper reports the room temperature hydrogen decrepitation (HD) of fully dense, 2/17-type sintered magnets based on the composition, Sm (Co 0.69 Fe 0.21 Cu 0.068 Zr 0.019) 7.49. These magnets absorb significant amounts of hydrogen over an extended period (∼48 h) at room temperature and at a pressure of 10 bar to give a …

 
The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16].. Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg

Hydrogen processing of magnetic scrap (HPMS) as one of the best approaches for magnet-to-magnet recycling is thoroughly reviewed in this study in terms …Mar 1, 2019 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) is used as an alternative method of powder preparation in the manufacturing process of sintered Nd Fe B magnets [1]. During the HD process a NdFeB-type material is hydrogenated by gaseous hydrogen at atmospheric (or elevated) pressure at room (or elevated) temperature. The MMG has been active in the field of rare earth alloys and processing of permanent magnets using hydrogen for over 40 years. Originated by Professor Emeritus Rex Harris, the hydrogen decrepitation method, which is used to reduce NdFeB alloys to a powder, is now ubiquitously employed in worldwide magnet processing. 0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …(DOI: 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00443-0) The corrosion and degradation of Nd–Fe–B magnets by hydrogen from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. In order to provide more information on this phenomenon, different density Nd–Fe–B magnets have been subjected to vacuum desorption, XRD and …The gravimetric measurements also confirmed that Dy additions increase both the initiation and absorption time for hydrogen decrepitation. Hence, a higher hydrogen pressure will be required to speed up the process. AB - Scrap containing NdFeB is a valuable resource for the production of NdFeB magnets as the demand for these materials grows.Permanent magnets produce magnetic fields and maintain the field even in the presence of an opposing magnetic field. They are widely used in electric machines, electronics, and medical devices. Part I reviews the conventional manufacturing processes for commercial magnets, including Nd-Fe-B, Sm-Co, alnico, and ferrite in cast and …A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. (2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE... We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo ... Nowadays, NdFeB magnets represent more than 90% of the REE permanent magnets production. But, SmCo magnets have much higher coercivity and better temperature resistance, and many experts expect ...The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16].The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4].Feb 5, 2009 · Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density and in ... Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …Jan 1, 2018 · High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into coarse granules or powder. Jan 1, 2007 · The rapid cooling of the strip flakes suppresses the growth of soft α-Fe branch crystal grains. The thickness of the strip flakes was about 0.25–0.35 mm. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which uses the expansion of hydrogen to break up the flakes, was followed by milling in a jet mill (JM). The particles were then accelerated to supersonic ... A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Finely divided loose Nd2Fe14BHx, x≤5, hydride powder (particle size ≤1 μm is synthesized by washing Nd2Fe14B crystallites embedded in calcium and other by‐products (during a reduction‐diffusion‐reaction performed using excess calcium) in water. The calcium reacts thereby with the water and produces, Ca+H2O CaO+H2, native …Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 authors M. Yan. ... Doping with Dy/Tb is a current solution to improve the coercivity and the operating temperature of NdFeB magnets, by increasing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the (Nd, Dy/Tb)2Fe14B (2:14:1) …The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process.May 5, 2017 · Typically, alloys are processed using the Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) [5], [6] where the cast NdFeB alloys are exposed to hydrogen at room temperature causing them to react exothermically, and consequently, decrepitating into a highly friable powder which can then be jet-milled, aligned, compressed and liquid phase sintered to form a ... Oct 30, 2018 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen pressure, and the temperature on the hydrogen absorption are discussed. The ... Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ... Jan 1, 2020 · Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) can be used as a direct reuse approach and effective method of recycling process to turn solid sintered magnets into a demagnetised powder for further processing. magnets from electrical and electronic equipment. These materials are then processed using hydrogen decrepitation to transform the NdFeB magnets into a hydrogenated powder. This powder can then be extracted mechanically from the obsolete devices, and can then be processed further to produce either sintered or bonded rare earth magnets.Oct 1, 2020 · INET-3 is efficient to recover and separate Dy, Nd, and Co from NdFeB leachates. Its ΔpH 0.5 values of Fe-Dy, Dy-Nd, and Nd-Co are 0.35, 0.79, and 2.49, respectively. It is better to remove Fe 3+ by selective leaching and precipitation before Dy, Nd, and Co recovery and separation. 98% of Dy 3+ is recovered after four-stage counter-current extraction at A/O = 1:2 and equilibrium pH = 2.52. Various efforts have been made in the past for direct recycling of spent NdFeB magnet using hydrogen decrepitation followed by resintering method (Zakotnik et al., 2009; Herraiz et al., 2016). In ...The obtained strips were pulverized and further milled into ∼5 μm powder using hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, respectively. These powders were pressed in a magnetic field of 1.8 T under a pressure of 8.0 MPa. Afterward, the green compacts were sintered at 1070°C for 3 h in vacuum, cooled by Ar quenching. ... NdFeB sintered …This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in …Jan 1, 1991 · Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by these routes. Michihide Nakamura, Masashi Matsuura, Nobuki Tezuka, Satoshi Sugimoto, Yasuhiro Une, Hirokazu Kubo, Masato Sagawa; Preparation of ultrafine jet-milled powders for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets using hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination and hydrogen …Jul 8, 2020 · The application of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) as a process for recycling Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets was reported in [ 6 ], in which the essential role of hydrogen in the recycling process was demonstrated. The obtained magnetic properties of the recycled magnet were ( BH) max = 290 kJ/m 3 (±5 kJ/m 3 ), Br = 1240 mT (±50 mT) and jHc = 830 kA/m ... Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets. Miha Zakotnik, E. Devlin, +1 author. A. Williams. Published 2006. Materials Science, Engineering. Journal of Iron and Steel Research International. View via Publisher. Save to Library.There are many major production steps –plus numerous sub steps- in the manufacture of high-quality, high-tech Neodymium magnets. Each step is highly important, and each step is an essential part of a highly refined …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the …Mar 1, 2016 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4]. May 5, 2017 · Typically, alloys are processed using the Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) [5], [6] where the cast NdFeB alloys are exposed to hydrogen at room temperature causing them to react exothermically, and consequently, decrepitating into a highly friable powder which can then be jet-milled, aligned, compressed and liquid phase sintered to form a ... Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process and re-sintering NdFeB magnet scrap recycling by processing it in hydrogen, then milling, aligning, pressing and re-sintering it [38–40] Although different methods for NdFeB magnet recycling have been reported in the literature, only one piece of technology has been applied in practice by the Urban MiningSadly, one of the most common RE magnets, NdFeB, is produced as powder by strip casting and jet milling or by hydrogen decrepitation process, both of which yield irregular/angular powders. Such irregular powders exhibit low flowability making them unfit for most advanced manufacturing techniques. This work presents the use of an induction ...Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly …T D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The Use of Hydrogen to Separate and Recycle Neodymium-Iron-Boron-type Magnets from Electronic Waste A. Walton a, Han Yi , N.A. Rowson b, J.D. Speight , V.S.J. Mann a, R.S. Sheridan , A. Bradshaw a, I.R. Harris a, A.J. Williams School of Metallurgy and Materials a and School of Chemical Engineering b, …May 11, 2020 · Metallurgical simulation and evaluation of the resource efficiency of whole production processes are of key importance for sound environmental impact assessments. Exergy dissipation analysis is suitable to quantify the theoretical limits of a process and pinpoint hotspots for improvements along the value chain. Production of NdFeB permanent magnets is evaluated herein using a simulation-based ... H 2 can be used to extract NdFeB magnets from the automotive scrap, however, many challenges in the recycling are presented.. The importance of design choices, having negative impact on the recycling, are investigated in this work, so can be avoided. • Higher Dy additions slow down the kinetics of the hydrogen decrepitation …NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - …Introduction. In the fields of sintered magnets, the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) technique has been widely used. The as-melted NdFeB bulk material becomes brittle after HD and decrepitates into powders, as a result of the large volume expansion of the lattice of both the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix and the intergranular Nd-rich phase [1]. Hydrogen …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the …Hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics for high coercivity NdDyFeCoNbCuB sintered bulk magnets were studied, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement and hydrogenation kinetics measurement. The DSC measurements showed that hydrogenation of Nd-rich phase occurred in the temperature range of …Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of neodymium hydrides though the reaction of hydrogen gas with neodymium located in the Nd-Fe-B magnet. …The gravimetric measurements also confirmed that Dy additions increase both the initiation and absorption time for hydrogen decrepitation. Hence, a higher hydrogen pressure will be required to speed up the process. AB - Scrap containing NdFeB is a valuable resource for the production of NdFeB magnets as the demand for these materials grows.Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo ... Nowadays, NdFeB magnets represent more than 90% of the REE permanent magnets production. But, SmCo magnets have much higher coercivity and better temperature resistance, and many experts expect ...Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo ... Nowadays, NdFeB magnets represent more than 90% of the REE permanent magnets production. But, SmCo magnets have much higher coercivity and better temperature resistance, and many experts expect ...The reactions and phase changes occurring during sintering of NdFeB permanent magnet alloys were studied by differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The powders were produced by hydrogen decrepitation and on heating, hydrogen evolution occurred in two stages: firstly from the matrix phase (∼170 °C) and …There are many major production steps –plus numerous sub steps- in the manufacture of high-quality, high-tech Neodymium magnets. Each step is highly important, and each step is an essential part of a highly refined …This paper studied the corrosion behavior of c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces in sintered (Ce 0.15 Nd 0.85) 30 Fe bal B magnets. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The distribution of RE-rich phase is improved after Ce substitution compared with the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, and the value of A0 / A1 is approximate for both c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces.During the hydrogenation process, a volume expansion takes place, which promotes the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, causing the breakup of the material [29].Fig. 1 shows the different types of fracture that can occur during the hydrogen decrepitation process. The hydrogenation of the grain boundary phase can lead to an …Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.Abstract. This paper reports the desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder, and unmilled material, produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a pre-milling technique, investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to …NdFeB magnets are used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles and are instrumental in progression toward a low-carbon economy. Recycling rare-earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB magnet waste is an important step toward building a sustainable REE supply chain. In this study, we describe an electrochemical process to selectively extract REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. First ... Jan 1, 2007 · The rapid cooling of the strip flakes suppresses the growth of soft α-Fe branch crystal grains. The thickness of the strip flakes was about 0.25–0.35 mm. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which uses the expansion of hydrogen to break up the flakes, was followed by milling in a jet mill (JM). The particles were then accelerated to supersonic ... Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly …magnets from electrical and electronic equipment. These materials are then processed using hydrogen decrepitation to transform the NdFeB magnets into a hydrogenated powder. This powder can then be extracted mechanically from the obsolete devices, and can then be processed further to produce either sintered or bonded rare earth magnets.The Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase is the main component of sintered NdFeB magnets. The ternary NdFeB phase diagram (Fig. 5.1(a)) shows that there are five phases in addition to the Nd 2 Fe 14 B (T1) phase: Fe, Nd 2 Fe 17, Nd 5 Fe 17, Nd 1.1 Fe 4 B 4 (T2), and Nd.Sintered NdFeB magnets are produced by the liquid phase sintering process and the …The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7].The fabrication of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets is composed of quite a few processes mainly including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet-milling, magnetic alignment and pressing, sintering and subsequent heat treatment, machining, and surface coating. ... Possible methods of recycling NdFeB-type sintered magnets using the …The nature of hydrogen decrepitation when applied to a cast Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy has been studied by following the microstructural changes on polished surfaces of the material exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 4 bar. The milling of the material decrepitated at a pressure of 10 bar has also been studied by determining …Sep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in order ... Unfortunately, the contained NdFeB magnets break up into a friable magnetized powder which then sticks to the ferrous scrap and the shredder itself. A production-scale plant in Germany planned to go onstream in 2024 and a pilot plant launched a few months ago in the UK, expected to graduate to production-scale in 2023, …Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo 5 magnets were decrepitated by hydrogen gas at a pressure of 1 bar to 9.5 bar at room temperature in a planetary rotating jar. After decrepitation, the starting sintered magnets were reduced to …Jul 14, 2000 · The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling the hydrogen ... At these elevated tempera- tures the decrepitation process proceeded rapidly and particles were ejected from the sample on all sides, V.A. Yartys et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 50-54 53 Fig. 2. Surface of a plate ejected from the [001 ] aligned sintered Nd16FeTaB8 magnet at the first stage of hydrogen decrepitation.Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives.This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in …@article{osti_37277, title = {Hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets}, author = {Stiller, C and Roth, S and Binner, A}, abstractNote = {The kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior of a NdFeB sintered magnet is studied. Hydrogenation at temperatures above 200 C is used to crumble the Nd-enriched phase. …Aug 4, 2022 · Here, we describe a room temperature, electrolytic decrepitation process applied to sintered Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnet fragments taken from end-of-life computer hard disk drives. In this process, fine grain, Nd-magnet-hydride powder is rapidly produced by atomic hydrogen in a 2 M KOH electrolyte. This work could have implications with regard to the mechanism of hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets during the well-established recycling process described by Walton et al. [19] and [20]. During this process, scrap sintered NdFeB magnets are damaged in air to expose a clean surface suitable for hydrogen decrepitation. …Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand.The intrinsic magnetic coercivity (H ci) of Nd‐Fe‐B‐based permanent magnet material is profoundly affected by hydrogen absorbed during the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for producing anisotropic powders from bulk anisotropic hot‐deformed MAGNEQUENCH (MQ) magnets.Hydrogen (H) content and x‐ray diffraction …Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives.The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd 1 6 Fe 7 6 B 8 and stoichiometric composition Nd 11.8 Fe 82.3 B 5.9 have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. The influence of the initial microstructures of the alloys on …Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg, indipercent27s dixie highway, ridley

The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling method to …. Ndfeb hydrogen decrepitation.jpeg

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In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and …Nov 14, 2017 · Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx) and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 m in size. Jul 1, 2019 · Recycling of scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets as anisotropic bonded magnets via hydrogen decrepitation process. The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by…. The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} and stoichiometric composition Nd{sub 11.8}Fe{sub 82.3}B{sub 5.9} have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. ... The procedure …So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand. Sagawa obtained ultrafine NdFeB grain by innovative HD (hydrogen-decrepitation) + HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) + helium jet milling process. It should be noted that the helium gas is more suitable than nitrogen gas to fabricate ultrafine powder due to its lighter mass fraction, and will also …Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly …The ultrafine magnet waste (particle size < 1 µm) contained around 50% rare earths mainly in the form of hydroxides as they are generated from the hydrogen decrepitation. The major phases in ultrafine NdFeB waste were Nd(OH) 3, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe phases. When ultrafine magnet waste was leached with hydrofluoric acid, all the iron …The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16].A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Sprecher, et al. [8] compared the environmental impact of producing virgin NdFeB magnets to producing recycled NdFeB magnets from waste computer hard disk drives (HDDs) using hydrogen decrepitation. The results showed that recycling in general was more favorable to the environment, and this was especially true for manual …Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) of Nd-Fe-B cast alloys is widely used in the processing of sintered magnets. The oxidation resistance under air of alloy powder …As noted above, the calculated Gibbs energy of reactions of individual REE with atomic hydrogen (Table 1) is strongly negative, thereby predictive of rapid chemical decrepitation of the two-phase Nd-magnet within the temperature range of interest. These reactions can be expected to take place immediately … See moreEach magnet was exposed to hydrogen and the decrepitation behaviour observed. The anisotropic samples were found to decrepitate exclusively from the ends of the rods whereas the isotropic magnets were attacked by the hydrogen at all points on their surface. Bulk corrosion studies in steam gave comparable results, the oriented sample …Hydrogen decrepitation as a highly efficient and excellent crushing method is widely used in the preparation of NdFeB magnets. ... Expand. 1. Save. The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB based magnets. S. Adrwish. Materials Science, Engineering. 2013; The scrap magnets were turned into a powder using the HD process. …The intrinsic magnetic coercivity (Hci) of Nd‐Fe‐B‐based permanent magnet material is profoundly affected by hydrogen absorbed during the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for producing anisotropic powders from bulk anisotropic hot‐deformed MAGNEQUENCH (MQ) magnets. Hydrogen (H) content and x‐ray diffraction …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd 1 6 Fe 7 6 B 8 and stoichiometric composition Nd 11.8 Fe 82.3 B 5.9 have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. The influence of the initial microstructures of the alloys on …International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Volume 22, Issues 2–3 , February–March 1997 , Pages 241-244 Technical and operating features of interaction between hydrogens and alloys and magnets on the basis of rare earth metalsApr 15, 2022 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in the range of 720–820 °C. A production-scale plant in Germany planned to go onstream in 2024 and a pilot plant launched a few months ago in the UK, expected to graduate to production-scale in 2023, are using the hydrogen-enabled process in efforts to commercialize it. At the center of both efforts is HyProMag Limited, closely tied to the University of Birmingham and an ...The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand.Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} and stoichiometric composition Nd{sub 11.8}Fe{sub 82.3}B{sub 5.9} have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. ... The procedure …Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 authors M. Yan. ... Doping with Dy/Tb is a current solution to improve the coercivity and the operating temperature of NdFeB magnets, by increasing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the (Nd, Dy/Tb)2Fe14B (2:14:1) …Investigating the properties of recycled NdFeB magnets. We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE Fe B (RE Abstract 2 14 = Nd, Pr. . . ) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of decommissioned magnets and the magnetic properties of the consolidated magnets.Sagawa obtained ultrafine NdFeB grain by innovative HD (hydrogen-decrepitation) + HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) + helium jet milling process. It should be noted that the helium gas is more suitable than nitrogen gas to fabricate ultrafine powder due to its lighter mass fraction, and will also …The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …The invention relates to a hydrogen decrepitation process for sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and belongs to the technical field of magnetic materials. The hydrogen decrepitation process includes melting metal materials, quickly solidifying the metal materials into cast pieces, activating the cast pieces under a certain condition, namely …0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …Semantic Scholar extracted view of "A study of the effects of the addition of various amounts of Cu to sintered NdFeB magnets" by O. Ragg et al. ... from an Nd/sub 17/-Fe/sub 76.5/-B/sub 5/-Cu/sub 1.5/ alloy by a two-step heat treatment at 1370 K and 870 K following hydrogen decrepitation (HD)-processing. …May 11, 2020 · Metallurgical simulation and evaluation of the resource efficiency of whole production processes are of key importance for sound environmental impact assessments. Exergy dissipation analysis is suitable to quantify the theoretical limits of a process and pinpoint hotspots for improvements along the value chain. Production of NdFeB permanent magnets is evaluated herein using a simulation-based ... Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process and re-sintering NdFeB magnet scrap recycling by processing it in hydrogen, then milling, aligning, pressing and re-sintering it [38–40] Although different methods for NdFeB magnet recycling have been reported in the literature, only one piece of technology has been applied in practice by the Urban MiningAt these elevated tempera- tures the decrepitation process proceeded rapidly and particles were ejected from the sample on all sides, V.A. Yartys et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 50-54 53 Fig. 2. Surface of a plate ejected from the [001 ] aligned sintered Nd16FeTaB8 magnet at the first stage of hydrogen decrepitation.International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Volume 24, Issues 2–3, 1 March 1999, Pages 257-261. Application of hydrogen vibration milling in theprocessing of NdFeB and (Nd, Pr)FeB permanent magnets. Author links open overlay panel R.S Mottram 1, V Yartys 2, P.W Guegan 1, I.r Harris 1. Show more.The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …The ultrafine magnet waste (particle size < 1 µm) contained around 50% rare earths mainly in the form of hydroxides as they are generated from the hydrogen decrepitation. The major phases in ultrafine NdFeB waste were Nd(OH) 3, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe phases. When ultrafine magnet waste was leached with hydrofluoric acid, all the iron …The hydrogen-absorbing NdFeB powder absorbs heat in the plasma and rapidly decomposes and dehydrogenates. At the same time, in the dehydrogenation process, the particles are cracked and broken to form fine NdFeB powder due to rapid heat absorption and release of a large amount of hydrogen, and the NdFeB powder is at a high …Oct 25, 2015 · End-of-life NdFeB magnets are important secondary RE sources. Several recycling methods for NdFeB magnets have been developed, such as direct reuse,4 hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and regeneration of new NdFeB,5–7 pyrometallurgical methods,8,9 hydrometallurgical methods,10–13 gas-phase extraction. Sep 20, 2016 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Pre-dismantled Computer HDDs. The University of Birmingham (UK) has developed a hydrogen-processing method to extract sintered NdFeB magnets from computer hard disk drives [13, 41]. During this process, either the voice coil assemblies from the hard disk drive or the cropped corner from the drive is exposed to hydrogen ... room temperature in a custom-made gauge glass reactor, and the hydrogen decrepitation process was video-monitored in situ with a single frame camera at 0.1 frames per second (fps).The desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder and unmilled material produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a premilling technique was investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to approximately 1000 degrees C. A …International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Volume 24, Issues 2–3, 1 March 1999, Pages 257-261. Application of hydrogen vibration milling in theprocessing of NdFeB and (Nd, Pr)FeB permanent magnets. Author links open overlay panel R.S Mottram 1, V Yartys 2, P.W Guegan 1, I.r Harris 1. Show more.During the hydrogenation process, a volume expansion takes place, which promotes the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, causing the breakup of the material [29].Fig. 1 shows the different types of fracture that can occur during the hydrogen decrepitation process. The hydrogenation of the grain boundary phase can lead to an …Sep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in order ... Jul 1, 2002 · The effective diffusivity of hydrogen in NdFeB magnets is reduced with Co and Ga additions and as a result of the texture induced in the microstructure via die-upsetting process. In addition to the results shown in Fig. 8 , the thermal desorption behaviour related to the hydrogenation of a die-upset MQU-G magnet is different for the two ... Another example of the coercivity recovery in crushed NdFeB-type sintered magnets was made by adding the DyF 3 salt [8]. Furthermore, the production of anisotropic RE–Fe–B–Cu powders have also been produced by hydrogen decrepitation of hot deformed ingots [9] followed by degassing.Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density …The HD-process converts the magnets possible to recover the hard magnetic powder from a to a powder due to the expansion of the material on particular device (e.g. hard disk drive or electric motor) hydrogen absorption. Recycling of NdFeB magnets by by simply exposing the complete system to a hydrogen this means has been proposed by Rivoirard ...Hydrogen decrepitation as a highly efficient and excellent crushing method is widely used in the preparation of NdFeB magnets. ... Expand. 1. Save. The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB based magnets. S. Adrwish. Materials Science, Engineering. 2013; The scrap magnets were turned into a powder using the HD process. …The process of hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which is used in the primary production and recycling of Nd magnets, takes place at low temperatures, even at room temperature, so that the entire microstructure decomposes only in powder form and the grain size is reduced. Abstract. This paper reports the room temperature hydrogen decrepitation (HD) of fully dense, 2/17-type sintered magnets based on the composition, Sm (Co 0.69 Fe 0.21 Cu 0.068 Zr 0.019) 7.49. These magnets absorb significant amounts of hydrogen over an extended period (∼48 h) at room temperature and at a pressure of 10 bar to give a …Mar 1, 1985 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the alignment, which can ... The application of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) as a process for recycling Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets was reported in [ 6 ], in which the essential role of hydrogen in the recycling process was demonstrated. The obtained magnetic properties of the recycled magnet were ( BH) max = 290 kJ/m 3 (±5 kJ/m 3 ), Br = 1240 mT (±50 mT) and jHc = …The desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder and unmilled material produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a premilling technique was investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to approximately 1000 degrees C. A …Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ...May 8, 2023 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at ... Various anti-corrosion coatings used on commercially available NdFeB-type magnets were comparatively examined for their durability and suitability for magnet reprocessing by hydrogen-assisted recycling (HPMS). Layer thickness and structure were determined by systematic microstructural analysis, and a standardized corrosion test …The use of 3-D laser confocal microscopy to visualise hydrogen interactions in-sit; The use of hydrogen decrepitation to extract NdFeB magnets from electronic assemblies; In-situ removal of magnets from large magnetic assemblies using hydrogen; Corrosion protection for NdFeB magnets; Recycling of rare earth magnets; Strip casting …Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives.0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Volume 22, Issues 2–3 , February–March 1997 , Pages 241-244 Technical and operating features of interaction between hydrogens and alloys and magnets on the basis of rare earth metalsHydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx) and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 μm in size. Recycled NdFeB material has …Over the last ten years several groups have been carrying out research into metal injection moulding (MIM) of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) powders to produce isotropic or …A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold.Aug 4, 2022 · Here, we describe a room temperature, electrolytic decrepitation process applied to sintered Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnet fragments taken from end-of-life computer hard disk drives. In this process, fine grain, Nd-magnet-hydride powder is rapidly produced by atomic hydrogen in a 2 M KOH electrolyte. The MMG has been active in the field of rare earth alloys and processing of permanent magnets using hydrogen for over 40 years. Originated by Professor Emeritus Rex Harris, the hydrogen decrepitation method, which is used to reduce NdFeB alloys to a powder, is now ubiquitously employed in worldwide magnet processing. Hydrogen Decrepitation is a known process for breaking rare earth alloys such as NdFeB into powder, as described by Zakotnik et al. (“Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of Sintered NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets”, Proceedings of 19 th International Workshop on Rare Earth Permanent Magnets & Their Applications; pp 289-295).May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50-300°C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by ...NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - Decrepitation -D...(2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE... . Bellezza corpo, 2022 2023 nielsen dma rankings